Java EE extends the Java SE by adding a set of enterprise application specific features that help developers code better as per the standards required to be adhered to by the enterprise applications.
Two of the inherent features of the legacy Java systems help Java EE in acquainting and assisting Java software development company resources with the development of enterprise applications.
Java is an open source platform that has been developed by Sun Systems, and later taken over by Oracle – which has chosen to retain its open source nature. The popularity of Java even after the emergence of several new languages can be attributed to the thriving community of experts, who task themselves with providing advice on tricky issues and conducting peer reviews.
This community sets the standards of the Java Community Processes (JCP), which provide the norms for naming conventions and code formatting. When a developer comes up with a feature suggestion to be included in the future versions of Java, a Java Service Request (JSR) is filed. Java EE is the outcome of more than 40 accepted JSRs.
The same open community is responsible for guiding the developers about the new features incorporated in Java EE. To participate in or to avail the benefits of the knowledge flowing in the open community (JCP), the developers (individual/organization) have to sign a JSPA (Java Specification Participation Agreement), an AMA (Associate Membership Agreement) and/or a PMA (Partner Membership Agreement).
JSR remains the most important aspect of Java EE as an open source platform – as it allows the users to start completely new enhancements to the existing version of Java.
The typical cycle of a JSR is – Write a JSR >> Submit a JSR >> Review of JSR >> Formation of EG (Expert Group) >> Early Draft Review >> Public Draft Review >> Proposed Final Draft >> Final Ballot.
The democratic nature and continuous evolution through community processes makes Java (and thus, Java EE) one of the oldest and still state-of-the-art languages available for utilization.
The Java EE platform is built on top of the existing Java SE platform to enable development of large scale, scalable, multi-tiered, reliable and secure network applications.
With a majority of enterprises preferring a cloud-based architecture, all enterprise apps are hosted in the same environment as opposed to the independent deployment of earlier applications. More often than not, the same backend system is utilized by enterprise applications running on a variety of devices like laptops, smartphones, tablets, etc.
In times of advanced coding techniques, it is a redundant exercise to write platform specific code for each of the devices. The Java EE retains ‘Write once, run anywhere’ paradigm through the virtual machine layer (JVM) that acts on top of the device’s operating system (OS) along with the Just-in-time compiler (JIT) that maintains the speed and performance standards so that the application works as if it is written using native code. This imparts capabilities that make Java EE an integrated platform.
Following are some of the features that improve the efficiency enterprise applications developed by any Java software development company that makes use of the Java EE integrated platform:
- JPA (Java Persistence API) – Access, manage, persist data in Java objects and relational database.
- JSF (Java Server Faces) – Build component based UI for web apps.
- JSP (Java Server Pages) – Create dynamically generated webpages based on HTML.
- JAX-RS (Java API for RESTfulWebservices) – Supports creating REST web APIs.
- EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) – Components that encapsulate the business logic in apps.
- CDI (Context and Dependency Injection) – Apply inversion of control in Java apps.
The recently introduced JSR 375 for incorporating Java Security API in Java EE will also add to the efficiency of Java EE as an integrated platform, as it will enable security features in the backend as well as the front-end applications.